Theory of Addiction (Addiction Press)

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Becker, H. Figure 1 The dissociation between incentive and hedonic processes. Current Issue An estimated one in 10 patients in the UK hospital system may be alcohol-dependent. The brain reward circuitry in mood disorders. For example, people vary in their willingness to delay gratification Mischel The retirement phase of heroin using careers. Addiction Resources.

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Substance Use: Addiction Theories New Treatments and the Role of Doctoring in Society

Classical conditioning and operant conditioning describe how we learn from direct experience. However, humans usually learn by observing others. This is called social learning. Social learning is the most common way that people learn. Therefore, it has important implications for recovery efforts.

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In this section, we limit our discussion to the learning that occurs within social groups. These groups may include the family, peers groups, and the larger community. We will further discuss the powerful influence of other social groups in another section.

The social interactions that have the greatest influence are with the people who mattered to us as we grew up. This includes parents and other family members.

Dislocation Theory of Addiction

It might also include a neighbor or teacher. Maybe we noticed our parents only ever relaxed and had fun when they gambled perhaps playing cards with friends. Maybe they coped with stress by smoking pot.

Maybe we observed they never socialized unless they were drinking. If we observed these sorts of things then we will be more likely to try out these behaviors as well. This is because we have learned through observation that gambling, smoking pot, and drinking achieved a positive result.

The Social Connection Theory of Addiction

In the absence of other healthier examples, it would seem those activities were good ways to relax, have fun, and reduce stress. We can attribute this to social learning.

People have a powerful need for social interaction. Therefore, it becomes important to consider the compelling social nature of many addictions. Many types of addiction require at least the cooperation of other people. Some types of addictions afford opportunities for pleasing social discourse and interaction as well.

Adult reward circuitry

For example, heroin addicts often help one another obtain and use the drug. Alcohol is a frequent and often central feature of many social venues. Gambling casinos strive to provide an exciting social atmosphere.